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Aircraft metallic materials >> Vacuum Plasma High Energy Technology (VPTHE method) for the production of coatings and ion surface treatment >> Industrial equipment for production of ion-plasma coatings (FSUE VIAM project)

Industrial equipment for production of ion-plasma coatings (FSUE VIAM project)

VIAM has created the unique industrial equipment for production of ion-plasma multi-component protective and strengthening coatings. The equipment is based on the vacuum-arc method of plasma generation, condensation and coating deposition at high energies of particles (100-2000 eV ) and has no analogues in the world practice.

MAP-2 Unit for deposition of ion-plasma multicomponent protective and strengthening coatings

The unique ion-plasma process of surface treatment with particles having energy of up to 2 keV offers wide opportunities for purposeful changing of structural-phase surface state and ensures increase in parts reliability and service life.

- high quality of applied coatings ( adhesion of more than 100 MPa , nonporous , fine-grained structure, and correspondingly high plasticity ),

- simple technological process of coating production (minimal requirements to surface preparation for coating, minimal number of parameters being controlled for proper quality of coating, etc),

- simple, reliable and low cost equipment, technology and coatings . The technology is successfully applied for:

  • Control of structural-phase state and physicochemical surface properties by means of diffusion saturation with ions of metals or alloys, for instance, titanizing, titanium-zirconizing and aluminium-cobalt-yttrium-ciliconizing of compressor steels (with the depth of 15-20 µm) for the multifold increase in their heat and salt-corrosion resistance.
  • Creation of effective barrier layers for protective coatings and increase in serviceability of parts with ion-plasma coatings.
  • Control of macrostructure of cast turbine blades with equiaxial and directional crystal structure (ion etching with the depth of several µm and the treatment affected area << 1 µm).
  • Removal of defective surface layer of the most crucial parts (with the depth and the treatment affected area << 1 µm ( repair of turbine blades)).

Alloy surface with the ion saturation
(GS26 base; saturation in Ti plasma)

Equipment for deposition of ion-plasma coatings on GTE blades:

Unit: Unit capabilities: Main advantages and disadvantages of MAP-1 unit
MAP-1 commercial unit
produced by “Electromechanika” plant

Deposition of multicomponent coatings of the following types:

Multicomponent overlay coatings;

Alloyed aluminide diffusion coatings;

Overlay-diffusion coatings

High quality of a coating;

High accuracy;

Low reliability of the unit;

Possibility to apply coatings only on turbine blades

MAP-1M(1) on the basis of MAP-1 commercial unit (the 1 st modernization by FSUE VIAM) Deposition of multicomponent coatings of all types High reliability of MAP-1M(1) unit
MAP-1M(2) on the basis of MAP-1 commercial unit (the 2 nd modernization by FSUE VIAM)

Extra capabilities:

Deposition of erosion-resistant coatings of МеС; МеN systems

Extra advantages:

Possibility to apply coatings on GTE compressor blades

MAP-1M(3) on the basis of MAP-1 commercial unit (the 3 rd modernization by FSUE VIAM)

Extra capabilities:

Deposition of erosion-resistant coatings of МеС; МеN systems

Surface ion treatment (etching, surface saturation)

Extra advantages:

Removal of the used coatings, control of cast turbine blades macrostructure;

Increase in service properties of GTE parts by means of surface modification in metallic

MAP-2 - modification of MAP-1M(3) unit (with computer control system) Deposition of ion-plasma coatings of all types High accuracy and reproducibility of the technology, stability of coating properties and parameters
VIAM-MESh-50 Deposition of ion-plasma coatings of all types Besides all the advantages of MAP-2 unit, VIAM-MESh-50 is capable to coat turbine blades and other parts up to 600 mm high, as well as to produce multi-layered coatings for one deposition process

The unit contains the plasma generator of the radial type which ensures a more than threefold increase in efficiency compared with units containing plasma generators of the axial type and systems for surface purification by gaseous and metallic ions. The unit power consumption is no more than 60 kVA, output - 72-96 turbine blades with the airfoil height of 60-70 mm and the coating thickness of 100 µm.

In MAP-1M ion-plasma unit the primary purification of coated surfaces is carried out in a flow of argon plasma generated in ЕхН accelerator with the anodic layer at Ar ions energy of 1000 - 3000 eV. The final surface purification and coating deposition is carried out in plasma of a coating material at particles energy of 100 - 1000 eV. High energy of particles at surface purification and coating condensation ensures high density and adhesion (> 100 MPa) of ion-plasma coatings and their fine-grained structure.

Plasma of coating material is generated in high-current vacuum arc discharge (500 - 700 A) by means of cathode material erosion by vacuum arc cathode microspots, which are retained in a circular evaporation zone by the magnetic field. Control of energy of particles interacting with a treated surface is realized by means of feeding a negative potential from an inverter power source on coated items. Ion current incoming from plasma on treated parts amounts to 40-50 A. In order to get metals compounds a corresponding reactive gas (N2, C2H2, O2 etc.) is supplied at pressure of ~ 5·10-2 - 5·10-1 Pa.

MAP-1M unit has the coating zone height of to 200 mm and 24 rotating positions placed within the diameter of 550 mm. The unit ensures deposition of overlay coatings with the thickness of ~100 µm on 24 - 144 parts depending on their dimensions. The cathode of an evaporated material represents a tube with the external diameter of 180 mm, wall thickness of 20 mm and height of 340 mm, which provides ~30 kg of an evaporated material of Ni (Co) CrAlY alloy system - the quantity enough for unit operation during ~80 hours.

MAP-1M capacity does not exceed 45 kVA in the mode of coating deposition; the installed capacity is 80 kVA. Water consumption for cooling is no more than 1.8 m3/hour. The unit dimensions ( width, length, height) are 2000х4000х2700 mm.

Technical characteristics

Installed capacity , kW 80
Water consumption, m3/h 1.8
Limited vacuum pressure, Pa (mm Hg)


Number of channels for supplying the reactive gas, pcs 3
Gas-discharge source of argon ions, U, kV; I, mA 2-3; 150
Vacuum arc plasma generator, U, V; I, А 35±5; (200 - 700)
Voltage and current on coated parts, V; А 10 - 900; to 50
Coating zone height along the rotation axis, mm no more than 200
Maximum diameter of coated parts, mm (pcs) 65 (24); 130 (12)

The equipment can be applied in aircraft, shipbuilding and other branches of industry for deposition of protective and strengthening coatings on various parts with the diameter of up to 120 mm and height of up to 180-200 mm.

New ion-plasma coatings ensured efficiency and service life of engine blades of MiG-29, Su-27, Su-30(32), Il-96 and other aircraft.

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